Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 

The sector with the most significant change in emissions is still the transport sector with emissions increasing by a factor of 3.9 reaching 6.1 million tonnes CO2eq. in 2013. This increase is mostly related to the upturn of the number of registered vehicles in Lebanon from 500,000 in 1994 to 1,640,000 in 2013. The transport sector emits 23% of Lebanon's GHG emissions.

Moreover, the transport sector is the major source of indirect greenhouses, being responsible for 61% of NOx emissions, 99% of CO emissions and 65% of NMVOCs. Fuel combustion for energy production is the main emitter of SO2 with 94% of emissions, mainly caused by the sulphur content in burnt fuel. For more information, access Lebanon's Second Biennial Update Report.

Mitigation Measures and Technologies:

In 2014, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MoPWT) presented to the Council of Ministers the master plan to revitalize the land public transport for passengers. It encloses a set of actions to be implemented on the short and medium terms, shifting the passenger transport demand to mass transit systems. The main actions with direct impact on reducing GHG emissions are:

On the short term:

− Implementation of phase 1 of the rail transportation plan, namely the lane connecting port of Tripoli to the Syrian border.
− Revitalization and restructuring of the operation of public buses inside cities.
− Continuing the development project of traffic management in GBA.
− Improvement of the pedestrian infrastructure.

On the long term:

− Deployment of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) on Beirut north and south gates, commuting Jounieh to Jiyeh.
− Development of a mass transit system covering territories all over Lebanon and commuting cities.
− Restructuring the freight transport.

Moreover, in Lebanon's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), mitigation targets for the transport sector are 36% stabilization of the share of annual passengers-kilometers driven using public transport as an unconditional target, and 48% stabilization of the share of annual passengers-kilometers driven using public transport in addition to a 20% increase in the share of fuel efficient vehicles in the fleet by 2030 as conditional targets. 

Furthermore, the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) for Lebanon's Private Road Transport Sector, which has been approved by the Council of Minister's decision 14/2017, will allow for the implementation of a car scrappage and replacement program to replace old and fuel intensive vehicles with new fuel-efficient vehicles (private cars and taxis). 

Many technologies can help reduce both GHG emissions and air pollution in the transport sector. Expanding the market of fuel efficient vehicles and hybrid cars in addition to establishing a reliable Bus Transit System with dedicated lanes can reduce up to 80% of CO2 emissions and reduce transport-related costs by 30% to 80%. More information available in the Technology Needs Assessment