The Marrakesh Climate Conference (COP 22)

COP 22 Proceedings

The 22nd Conference of Parties (COP 22) took place in Marrakech, Morocco from the 7th till the 18th of November, 2016. 22,500 people participated in the climate change conference which included technical and high-level meetings.

The Marrakech Climate Conference started right after the Paris Agreement’s rapid entry into force on November 4, 2016, which allowed for an enhanced momentum for the Paris Agreement implementation negotiations. The technical negotiations resulted in UNFCCC decisions which pave the way forward. This COP mainly focused on planning the work rather than diving into the substance.

The Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) draft conclusions list the tasks to be done by Parties and the Secretariat in 2017 in order to achieve the Paris rulebook by 2018. Submissions on all items (NDCs, adaptation communication, global stocktake, modalities, procedures and guidelines for transparency etc.), technical workshops and papers, and roundtable discussions are foreseen to take place to reach an agreement on many pending issues. Click here to access the APA draft conclusions.

The concern many had and which was evidently clear is that the constructive ambiguity present in some provisions of the Paris Agreement expressed themselves in the negotiations. The differentiation issue between developed and developing countries has acted as an obstacle in some items in the contact groups and issues remain to be resolved in subsequent meetings following the upcoming submissions.

The high-level segment secured political momentum through the ‘Marrakech Action Proclamation for our Climate and Sustainable Development’which acted as a call from governments, the private sector and civil society that reiterated the messages of the Paris Agreement. 

Lebanon at the COP

The Lebanese delegation followed several tracks throughout the COP 22.

Furthermore, after submitting its first Biennial Update Report (BUR), Lebanon underwent the Facilitative Sharing of Views (FSV) in which a summary of the BUR was presented and questions from other Parties were answered. For more information on the COP 22 FSV process, click here.

Moreover, Lebanon submitted its Third National Communication (TNC) during the COP, which includes the most updated GHG emissions, includes the economic costs to Lebanon from climate change and presents the mitigation actions. To access the TNC, click here.

Lebanon also became an official member of the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF), which is a platform for vulnerable developing countries to raise ambition and share lessons learned. To know more about the CVF, click here.

Lebanon was also invited to speak on multiple side event panels, listed below:

Side Event Title


Supporting the implementation of Technology Action Plans (TAPs)

The event highlighted success stories with the implementation of TAPs, prepared by developing countries as part of their technology needs assessments (TNAs), to support the  implementation of the Paris Agreement

What We’ve Learned Since Paris: NDC Support Needs and the Way Forward

Paris marked a turning point in our collective acknowledgement and commitment to climate action. Since Paris we’ve had time to digest, revisit our commitments, and assess their collective impact and plan for implementation. Where has this left us and where do we have to go?

Monitoring Reporting and Verification: Experiences from Countries and international organizations from NCs and BURs

This side event provided an opportunity to discuss how different processes established at the country level can provide a substantive basis for developing solid MRV frameworks that would assist national governments to track progress and enhance reporting in the context of the Paris Agreement. 

Climate Change Impacts on the Arab Region – Economic Cost to Lebanon from Climate Change

This side event shared experience from regional initiatives and national efforts on climate change impacts and climate change adaptation strategies and measures and mitigation actions towards implementation of Paris Agreement and achieving the sustainable development in the Arab region. Lebanon shared a study which estimated the economic impact of climate change in Lebanon for 8 sectors, including agriculture, energy, tourism, health and others, for the years 2020, 2040 and 2080.

Climate Change Studio Mini Side Event - Eurasian Network on Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Nat. Communications, Biennial Update Reports, INDCs

The Eurasian Network aims at strengthening South-South cooperation in the preparation of national greenhouse gases inventories and reporting on climate change (NCs and BURs) among countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East.

Launch of the second edition of the Guidance Document for NAMA Design: A tool to realize GHG mitigation under NDCs

Many countries have already developed NAMAs as instruments for participating in the global mitigation agenda and as a means of leveraging national and international support for more effective and transformational climate actions. In light of the Paris Agreement these NAMAs have taken on a highlighted role as a formidable vehicle to reach NDC targets. In an effort to better support countries, UNDP, the UNFCCC Secretariat and the UNEP DTU Partnership (the original group of institutions to develop the initial NAMA Design Document) joined forces again to produce an updated document, signaling an increased emphasis on the central financial structuring of the mitigation actions to be anticipated as a result of the Paris Agreement. This event was the formal launch of the guidance and included experiences and feedback from countries who have re-envisioned their NAMAs in the new Post-Paris landscape.

Lebanon Side Event at COP 22

The Lebanese Ministry of Environment co-organized with the AUB’s Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs and UNDP a side event titled: “Triangular climate action: harmonized efforts of businesses, NGOs and the Government” at the COP22 that focused on inter-sectoral collaboration between the government, the private sector and civil society in Lebanon.

The session, supported by European Union, aims to provide diverse perspectives on cross-sector collaboration, between businesses, the government and civil society, to create an unparalleled opportunity to support business innovation and bring scale to the emerging low- carbon climate resilient economy.

Vahakn Kabakian, Climate Change Project Manager at the Lebanese Ministry of Environment, stressed the importance of the Lebanon Climate Act initiative, which was launched in June 2016, aiming to deepen the knowledge about the mechanisms to tackle climate change, and to identify the ways in which private sector companies can contribute to these mechanisms through the design and implementation of activities that will reduce the carbon footprint. Since its inception, more than 120 companies from the private sector and civil society in Lebanon have joined the initiative.

This initiative is implemented by Green Mind Society in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme, with support of the Central Bank of Lebanon, and EU’s ClimaSouth regional project. 

Nadim Farajalla, Program Director of Environment and Climate Change at the  Issam Fares Institute, presented an overview of the ongoing Issam Fares Institute study on the Lebanese industrial sector and climate change.

Are industrialists aware of the effects of climate change on their business? Are their collaboration with research institutes effective? These questions are at the center of a study at the Issam Fares Institute. According to Farajalla, industrialists interviewed are generally aware of the problem of climate change, but partly of its impact on their work. The study aims to propose collaborative strategies and effective search for solutions.

Bernardo Sala, team leader of ClimaSouth project, funded by the European Union which supports Lebanon Climate Act, pointed out that the project aims to promote dialogue and cooperation on climate change between the EU and the Southern Mediterranean countries, support the transition of partner countries towards low-carbon economy and development of climate resilience, within the context of sustainable development, enhance regional cooperation, information sharing, capacity development on climate change mitigation and adaptation, promote development in low-carbon and efficient energy use, and build national capacities in the formulation of integrated climate change strategies, for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Sala stressed the importance Lebanon’s Climate Change Mainstreaming initiative which includes training workshops and online clinique sessions, involving key sectors  and  strengthening a shared vision and dialogue in the run-up and in the aftermath of the COP22.

Yamil Bonduki, Manager of The UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Program, stressed the importance of building capacities to design and implement Low Emission Development Strategies and national mitigation actions in the public and private sectors.

The LECB program is a low-carbon pathfinder project that builds national capacities to design strategic, long-term national vision for low-emission development that is aligned with national development goals and acknowledges national circumstances. 25 countries, including Lebanon, benefit from peer-to-peer exchange of experiences and lessons, including the removal of technical, financial and institutional barriers to scaled-up mitigation action.


Way Forward


Lebanon’s official INDC committee is drafting the roadmap for INDC implementation and assessing the financial, regulatory, legal and capacity-building gaps.

Moreover, the Paris Agreement ratification has been approved by the Council of Ministers and has been forwarded to Parliament.