Lebanon's INDC

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What is an INDC?


Countries across the globe committed to create a new international climate agreement at the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015. For this purpose countries have agreed to outline the steps they are taking/will take to reduce emissions at national level under the new international agreement. These steps, which can be in the form of mitigation targets and/or mitigation actions are referred to as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).  Countries may also include further information in their INDC, like adaptation planning. The mitigation actions / targets put forward in countries’ INDCs will largely determine whether the world achieves an ambitious 2015 agreement and is put on a path toward a low-carbon, climate-resilient future.



In December 1994, Lebanon ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and has since been involved in various activities related to climate change. These activities were undertaken and monitored through a platform, the Climate Change Coordinating Committee (CCCC), led by the Ministry of Environment and in cooperation with its various focal points located at the line ministries, government agencies, private sector and academic institutions. In 2010, Lebanon put forward a climate change target for the energy sector by committing to 12% renewable energy use by 2020.


The UNFCCC has invited countries to submit INDCs. Submitting an INDC does not only mean contributing to the worldwide mitigation effort and thus reducing the negative impacts of climate change in the future. It also means that international funding, capacity building and technology transfer can be received for ambitious mitigation and adaptation action. 

Who prepared the INDC document?


The preparation of the INDC document was led by the ministry of Environment with a strong involvement of stakeholders. A number of meetings have been held to ensure development of the INDC in a participatory and transparent manner. The following stakeholder meetings took place:


July 14, 2015 - INDC factsheets were shared with sectoral experts at a first INDC meeting. These factsheets contained information on the sectors relevance with regards to mitigation and/or adaptation and listed mitigation and/or adaptation actions taken from existing sectoral strategies and plans as well as the sectoral chapters of Lebanon’s 3rd National Communication to the UNFCCC. This marked the first meeting of the inter-ministerial committee responsible for the development of the INDC.


July 28, 2015 – INDC Workshop; July 27-29 – Bilateral meetings: Contents of the factsheets were discussed at both the bilateral meetings as well as at the workshop. At the workshop, stakeholders selected the mitigation and adaptation actions which they proposed for consideration in the INDC. 


August 30, September 1, 2015 - Based on the updated INDC factsheets and first results of the GHG modelling using the  "Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System” (LEAP) software, inputs for each sector related to mitigation were agreed in bilateral meetings at this workshop.


Sep 21, 2015 – Final INDC workshop: The draft INDC document was discussed with stakeholders. The document had been circulated one week before the workshop.


Sep 29, 2015 – Final meeting of the inter-ministerial committee tasked to prepare the INDC. The final INDC document was discussed and approved. 


Sep 30, 2015 - Lebanon's INDC submitted to the UNFCCC.



What is international support?


International support can come in various ways:


Financial support: For example concessional loans, grants.


Capacity building: For example training, providing access to information, skill sharing, and quality management etc.


Technology transfer: The process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users.


Will the INDC be updated over time?


The INDC is a dynamic document that can be updated every 5 years to reflect changing circumstances. Where targets are updated this will be done using the same methodology as in for the present INDC draft, taking into account any newly available data.


What are the next steps?

The implementation process for the INDC requires a national discussion process for the preparation of a national action plan for mitigation and adaptation actions as agreed in the INDC. Furthermore the responsibilities for coordination have to be allocated, international support has to be sought and the MRV system for tracking INDC implementation has to be set up.