Energy Sector at a glance: 

In Lebanon we have:
- 1 Power utility: Electricité du Liban (EDL);
- 7 Thermal power plants – (3 operate on Heavy Fuel Oil, 4 on Gas Diesel Oil);
- 96% of electricity generated through thermal power plants in 2015;
- 4% of electricity generated through hydropower in 2015;
- 282 MW of installed capacity hydropower – 480 GWh produced in 2015; 
- 12,237 GWh electricity supply in 2015;
- 20,368 GWh electricity demand in 2015 , 8,131 GWh gap between supply and demand; 
- 220 MW capacity from three wind farms, PPA signed in 2018, generation to start by 2021.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

In 2015, the energy sector’s GHG emissions were estimated at 23,012 Gg CO2eq. (23 million tonnes CO2eq.), representing 85% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Lebanon. Public electricity generation (referred to as energy industries) is the largest contributor to these emissions with all of its power plants operating on fossil fuel. 

GHG emissions from the Energy sector grew by 7%/year during the period 1994-2015. 

More details available in Lebanon's Third Biennial Update Report (BURIII).

Mitigation Measures and Technologies:

As a party to the UNFCCC, Lebanon has made efforts to implement activities that lead to emission reduction based on its capabilities and taking into account its national circumstances. Lebanon is committed to address the challenges of climate change in the context of sustainable development and provides quantitative information on actions undertaken till 2015 to mitigate anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks. 

Solar water heatersremain by far the most developed renewable energy technology in Lebanon, representing around 53% of the estimated emissions that have been reduced in 2015. Indeed, more than 21,000 solar heaters were installed in the country by 2015, reducing electricity demand by 61,992 MWh for the same year. 

The “3 million Lamp” initiative launched in 2011 by the Ministry of Energy and Water to distribute 3 million CFLs to 1.5 million households across the country to replace incandescent lamps also contributed to a reduction of 172 Gg of CO2, representing around 40% of reported emission reductions during that year 

Emission reductions from other activities, namely biomass, solar PV installations for electricity generation in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors, and certified green buildings witnessed a significant growth between 2014 and 2015. Examples of significant projects include the addition of 875 donor-funded solar PV home systems in host communities and 178 solar PV installations for electricity (total of 3.40 MW installed capacity) in the private sector in 2015, together reducing 5,160 MWh, what is equivalent to 3,500 tonnes of CO2 eq. By 2017, the total solar PV installed capacity reached 35.45 MWp, generating 52,846 MWh and reducing an additional 35.19 Gg CO2 eq. (adapted from DREG, 2017).
Moreover, Projects aiming to improve the energy efficiency of thermal power plants also significantly contributed to emissions reductions or avoided in 2015. GHG emissions have been avoided through energy efficiency measures such as the utilization the energy in the exhaust gases and the hot cooling water from the engines, installation of indoor gas turbine plants with NOx control system and a mini hydro unit at the condenser outlet and the upgrade of design, material and coatings or power plants, which leads to improvement in turbine performance, and increases the overall power output and efficiency of the gas turbine. The plan for the HFO conditioning of the Zouk power plant has been cancelled and the construction of the Deir Amar Plan (DACCPP II 539.2 MW- HFO) is still in process and it is expected to enter in service in 2021.

Gender analysis

Women are often responsible for domestic works that require use of energy. Thus, as primary household-energy managers, women have a critical role to play along their male counterparts in the success of implementation of any energy related policy. They should be therefore targeted as a group in awareness and education campaigns. Furthermore, energy and related technologies can play a key role in integrating women into the economy by involving them in new type of activities and helping them acquire new skills. 

Important facts

Important Facts