Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

The energy sector is the most important contributor of emissions in Lebanon, generating 51% of the total national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (2011), which reflects Lebanon's heavy reliance on imported petroleum products to meet its energy needs. CO2 is the main gas emitted from the energy sector, with electricity production from Electricte du Liban (EDL) power plants (referred as energy industries) being responsible for 63% of total emissions. Electricity produced by private generators in manufacturing industries, construction, as well as the residential and commercial sector accounts for 32% of total emissions. The remaining emissions are generated through the consumption of kerosene, Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and diesel oil by the residential, commercial and institutional sector for cooking and heating purposes. More  details available in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report and Mitigation Analysis for the Energy Sector in Lebanon.

Mitigation Measures and Technologies:

The energy sector is the main source of Greenhouse Gas emissions in Lebanon, accounting for 51% of national emissions
Mitigation measures, or activities aiming at reducing emissions from energy, offer co-benefits to the sector through ensuring less reliance on imported fuel, reducing energy costs, alleviating budget deficit caused by the sector, and reducing air pollution and related health effects.

The Ministry of Energy and Water (MoEW) Policy Paper for the Electricity Sector (2010) endorsed by the Council of Ministers, sets the main activities for the reform of the energy sector in Lebanon and offers synergies with the sustainable development of the growth.

The main components of the Policy Paper include the supply of more than 12% of the fuel mix by renewable energy sources, the provision and use of natural gas as two-thirds of the fuel mix, and the increase of the installed capacity to 5,000 MW by 2020.

Based on the Policy Paper, two mitigation scenarios have been developed and assessed under Lebanon’s Second National Communication (SNC) to the UNFCCC. The implementation of all the activities proposed under the Policy Paper would reduce up to 177,912 Gg of CO2eq between 2011 and 2030 (mitigation scenario 1) while switching all oil-fired power plants to natural gas and increasing the target of renewable energy mix by 17% would reduce up to 204,768.3 Gg of CO2eq between 2011 and 2030 (mitigation scenario 2). More details available in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report and Mitigation Analysis for the Energy Sector in Lebanon.

A series of mitigation technologies have been identified under the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in order to reduce emissions from the energy sector. Combined-Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), hydropower, Photovoltaic cell (PV) and wind power technologies have been prioritized for Lebanon based on their GHG reduction potential, their initial and operation and maintenance cost, their sustainability as well as their societal and economic benefit. A cost benefit analysis and detail technology action plan have been developed for each of these options. More details available in the Technology Needs Assessment report.

Impacts of Climate Change on the Energy Sector:

Although the energy sector is a major contributor of GHG emissions, it is also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. An increase in 1°C to 3°C in temperature by 2040 is estimated to lead to an annual increase in electricity consumption for cooling purposes by 9.04% to 28.55%. The higher cooling demand in summer will drive the peak load higher along with the increase resulting from natural growth in population, consumption rates and oil prices. All of this will increase the burden on the power production and supply system to keep up with the increase in demand which will consequently drive the cost of power production and further increase the gap between supply and demand. Efforts that should be made in order to adapt to the impacts of climate change should complement the mitigation measures of implementing the MoEW Policy Paper to ensure a 24-hour supply of electricity, reduce budget deficit as well as reduce dependence on imported fuels. More details available in the Second National Communication report.