Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

The energy sector is the most important contributor of emissions in Lebanon, generating 56% of the total national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (2013), which reflects Lebanon's heavy reliance on imported petroleum products to meet its energy needs. Energy industries are responsible for around 50.5% of the total energy emissions in Lebanon (without transport). CO2 is the main gas emitted from the energy sector.

Lebanon suffers from a major gap between energy demand and supply, resulting in a deficit in energy of around 23%. This energy not supplied by public utilities is being supplied by privately owned generators providing electricity to households and commerce during cut-off hours. All these generators work on gas diesel oil which is bought either directly from private fuel distributors or from gas stations. Unfortunately, no data is available on the number, capacity or quantity of fuel used for private generators in the country.

More details available in Lebanon's Second Biennial Update Report (BURII).

Mitigation Measures and Technologies:

The energy sector is the main source of Greenhouse Gas emissions in Lebanon, accounting for 56% of national emissions
Mitigation measures, or activities aiming at reducing emissions from energy, offer co-benefits to the sector through ensuring less reliance on imported fuel, reducing energy costs, alleviating budget deficit caused by the sector, and reducing air pollution and related health effects. 

Climate mitigation in the energy sector plays an important role in achieving positive environmental, economic, and social impact through demand side management and cleaner energy production. In 2013, mitigation measures implemented in the energy sector contributed in reducing emissions by 513,063 tonnes CO2eq., with the expansion of the solar water heaters and the replacement of incandescent lamps inducing the most significant emission reductions.

Moreover, the Ministry of Energy and Water (MoEW) published the Energy Policy Paper in 2010, which proposed a series of actions related to generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity including the generation of 12% of renewable energy by 2020. The Policy Paper was followed by the 2 National Energy Efficiency Action Plans NEEAP (for 2011-2015 and 2016-2020) in addition to the National Renewable Energy Action Plan NREAP for 2016-2020 setting up a series of activities to implement the targets set by the Policy Paper.

In 2015, and as part of Lebanon’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), sectoral targets for 2020 were set for the energy sector: 15% renewable energy and 3% reduction in demand from energy efficiency as an unconditionally target and 20% renewable energy with 10% reduction in demand as a target conditional to technical, financial and capacity building support.

In terms of renewable energy in Lebanon, its share in energy production is slowly but steadily increasing. The main contributor to the renewable energy mix is hydropower, producing between 6% and 11% of the country’s total energy production depending on the precipitation levels in each year. The potential for hydroelectric power in Lebanon is significant, conditional to the rehabilitation and upgrade of existing units, the installation of new hydro units on the main rivers and streams and the development of micro-hydro potential on small streams and non-river sources.

In order to increase the share of wind and solar energy in Lebanon's energy mix, a Derisking Renewable Energy Investment (DREI) study for both technologies was conducted. This report analyzes the most cost-effective public derisking measures to promote private sector investment in large-scale wind energy and solar PV in Lebanon. The report sets out the results from a quantitative, investment-risk informed modelling analysis. Click here for the DREI summary report, the full report, the wind energy derisking infographic and the solar energy derisking infographic.

A series of mitigation technologies have been identified under the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in order to reduce emissions from the energy sector. Combined-Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), hydropower, Photovoltaic cell (PV) and wind power technologies have been prioritized for Lebanon based on their GHG reduction potential, their initial and operation and maintenance cost, their sustainability as well as their societal and economic benefit. A cost benefit analysis and detail technology action plan have been developed for each of these options. More details available in the Technology Needs Assessment report.

Impacts of Climate Change on the Energy Sector:

Although the energy sector is a major contributor of GHG emissions, it is also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. An increase in 1°C to 3°C in temperature by 2040 is estimated to lead to an annual increase in electricity consumption for cooling purposes by 9.04% to 28.55%. The higher cooling demand in summer will drive the peak load higher along with the increase resulting from natural growth in population, consumption rates and oil prices. All of this will increase the burden on the power production and supply system to keep up with the increase in demand which will consequently drive the cost of power production and further increase the gap between supply and demand. Efforts that should be made in order to adapt to the impacts of climate change should complement the mitigation measures of implementing the MoEW Policy Paper to ensure a 24-hour supply of electricity, reduce budget deficit as well as reduce dependence on imported fuels. More details available in the Second National Communication report.

Important facts

Important Facts
Derisking Solar Energy Investments