The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines mitigation of climate change as “implementing policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and enhance sinks” (IPCC, AR4). Various social, economic, and technological policies across the world have been contributing directly or indirectly to GHG emission reductions from many sectors. However, these initiatives are still not sufficient to counteract the continuous global increase of GHG emissions. Globally, it is expected that GHG emissions will increase by a range of 9.7 GtCO2eq to 36.7 GtCO2eq between 2000 and 2030 if current climate change mitigation policies and related sustainable development practices are maintained (Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change).


In Lebanon, different scenarios have been constructed and analyzed to assess mitigation potential of policies and measures:
  • The baseline scenarios are constructed based on the current sectoral plans, policies and projected trends that take into account demographic, social and economic assumptions available in official documentation.
  • The mitigation scenarios are proposed plans and projects that have a potential for sectoral emission reduction or sink enhancing. Mitigation options are selected and analyzed according to their direct and indirect economic impact, consistency with national development goals, economic feasibility, and compatibility with implementation policies and sustainability.

Baseline scenarios are different from the business as usual scenarios since the government of Lebanon has committed itself to long term plans which introduce major changes to the existing structure of the economy
The main mitigation measures suggested under different scenarios for the energy sector in Lebanon include the implementation of the Electricity Policy Paper of the Ministry of Energy and Water (MoEW); the increase of power generation efficiency in industries and the development of thermal standards for buildings.

The revitalization of the public transport system in Lebanon and the implementation of a car scrappage programme were seen to be the two GHG mitigation options from the transport sector.

Mitigation measures from the industrial sector concern mainly the cement industry, since it is the most important industrial source of GHG emissions in Lebanon. The analysis suggests to increase the additive blend in cement production.

Two parallel mitigation scenarios are proposed for the agriculture sector: the adoption of measures on the field level (i.e. farm manure management, plowing, efficient irrigation) and the enhancement of research, education, assistance and institutional support.

For the forestry sector, afforestation and reforestation and substitution of fossil fuels by forest-based biofuels were found to be possible measures to reduce emissions.

Emissions from the waste sector could be reduced by implementing the Waste Management Plan of 2006, and by using waste to produce energy. More details available in the Second National Communication report.

The Kyoto Protocol gave Parties a mechanism intended to help them comply to GHG emission limitation and achieve GHG reduction commitments. Certified Emission Reduction (CER) units are granted to projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) limiting or reducing GHG emissions in developing countries.

Going beyond the project by project basis which characterizes CDMs, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) give developing countries the opportunity to develop their own domestic policies and actions that would lead to the reduction of GHG emissions from one or more emitting sector, with financial and technological support from the international community.

Prior to the Paris Agreement, Lebanon submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC Secretariat, which includes mitigation targets and adaptation requirements till 2030. The compilation of the INDC was based on strong involvement of sectoral stakeholders and in parallel with national sectoral strategies.

The INDC includes unconditional and conditional targets. The unconditional targets include the impacts of mitigation actions which Lebanon is able to implement without additional international support. The conditional targets cover the impacts of the actions under the unconditional target as well as the impacts of further mitigation actions which can be implemented upon the provision of additional international support.