The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines mitigation of climate change as "implementing policies to reduce greenhouse gases and enhance sinks" (IPCC, AR4). Various social, economical and technological policies across the world have been contributing directly or indirectly to GHG emission reductions from many sectors.
However, these initiatives are still not sufficient to counteract the continuous global increase of GHG emissions.

Different scenarios have been constructed and analyzed to assess mitigation potential of policies and measures (OECD definition):The baseline scenarios are a reference emissions level that could be used to establish a goal and/or to measure changes in GHG emissions over time.  They are constructed based on the current sectoral plans, policies and projected trends that take into account demographic, social and economic assumptions available in official documentation.A baseline could be the same as a business-as-usual (BAU) trajectory, but in some circumstances may also be set at an emissions level distinct from the expected development of emissions under BAU. For evaluation of specific policies, countries may use a projected baseline to represent a counterfactual that does not include the impact of policies that would otherwise be considered in BAU. (COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT, 2012)The mitigation scenarios are proposed plans and projects that have a potential for sectoral emission reduction or sink enhancing. Mitigation options are selected and analyzed according to their direct and indirect economic impact, consistency with national development goals, economic feasibility, and compatibility with implementation policies and sustainability.

 Sectors Main Mitigation Measures 

  • Implementation of the Electricity Policy Paper of the Ministry of Energy and Water (MoEW)
  • Increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix
  • Increase of power generation efficiency in industries
  • Development of thermal standards for buildings

  • Revitalization of the public transport system
  • Implementation of a car scrappage program

  • Increase the additive blend in cement production 


  • Measures on the field level ex: farm manure management, plowing, efficient irrigation etc.
  • Enhancement of research, education, assistance and institutional support

  • Afforestation
  • Reforestation

  • Increase the recycling percentage
  • Encourage Waste-to-Energy

Pre-2020 Action

The Kyoto Protocol gave Parties a mechanism intended to help them comply to GHG emission limitation and achieve GHG reduction commitments. Certified Emission Reduction (CER) units are granted to projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) limiting or reducing GHG emissions in developing countries. Click here for more details on CDM in Lebanon.

Going beyond the project by project basis which characterizes CDMs, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) give developing countries the opportunity to develop their own domestic policies and actions that would lead to the reduction of GHG emissions from one or more emitting sector, with financial and technological support from the international community. Click here for more details on NAMAs in Lebanon.


Post-2020 Action

In accordance with the new Paris agreement, the Government of Lebanon has declared in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) its intention to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 15% by 2030 as an unconditional target and by 30% as a conditional one. Emission reduction will be achieved by the implementation of various mitigation strategies that target the main sources of GHG emissions in Lebanon.  

The compilation of the INDC was based on strong involvement of sectoral stakeholders and in parallel with national sectoral strategies. More details on Lebanon’s INDC here.